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How do I get started sampling on my K2000?

Entering The Sampler – Two Different Ways
There are two different methods of entering the Sampling page. Which method you choose depends on the type of sampling you are doing – how many samples you are making and if you need custom keymaps. The difference between the two methods primarily concerns the ease of accessing the keymap editor. Once you have made your samples, you will need to have them assigned to a keymap and have that keymap assigned to a layer in a program. Refer to the section entitled “Building a Keymap” on page 15-41, for a step by step explanation of how to create keymaps.

From Program, Setup, or Quick Access Mode
The simplest way to enter the Sampling page is from Program, Setup, or Quick Access Mode. (Note: the Sample soft button is also on the Master page.) Press the soft button labeled Sample on one of these pages. This is a good method to use if you are making only a couple of samples, or if you want to assign each sample to its own keymap and program. Once you have created and saved your sample, you can press the Preview soft button. This button will allow you to quickly create a program and keymap, with that sample assigned across the entire range of the keyboard. The program is a one layer program which uses the settings from the Default program 199.

From the Keymap Editor
This is a better method to use if you are going to be doing lots of multisampling, or if you need to create custom keymaps in which you have your new samples assigned across the keyboard in one keymap. Call up program 199, Default Program. Press Edit, then Keymap. Select Keymap 168, Silence, then press Edit again. This brings you to the Keymap editor. (In fact you can choose any program and keymap you want to start with, but by choosing these, you are starting with a “blank slate”.) Now from the Keymap editor, press the MIDI Mode button. This will jump you to the Sampling page. Once you have created and saved your samples, press Exit. You will now return to the Keymap Editor page, where you can immediately assign those samples across the keyboard. Once you have created and saved your keymap, you can either exit the Keymap editor and create a program which uses your new keymap, or you can return to the Sampling page for another round of sampling

Congratulations! You are now in the sampler.
Sampling with the K2000 Series
Contents
This document is quite long, but it has been kept as one long document to make it easier to print out or download. You can either read it from one end to the other, or jump straight to a specific section by choosing one from the list below:

* An Introduction to Sampling
* What the Sampling Option offers
* Sampling Concepts
* A Closer Look
* Entering the Sampler
* Hands-On Practice
* Digital and Analog Inputs
* Recording A Sample
* The Sample Editing Menu
* Edit Menu in Detail
* List of DSP Functions for Samples

An Introduction to Sampling
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This tutorial applies to all K2000, K2500, and K2600 models. For simplicity, we have used K2000 throughout the tutorial when referring to the instrument.

Sampling, for our purposes, refers to digital recording. The K2000 with the SMP-k/r Sampling Option can digitize any stereo or mono analog signal (i.e. another keyboard’s audio outputs, a microphone, a record player, a cassette player, etc.). The K2000 can also accept digital signals from devices such as a CD player’s digital output (SPDIF) or optical outputs, a DAT player’s digital outputs (AES-EBU/SPDIF), etc. AES-EBU, SPDIF, and Optical are different types of digital format protocols for transmitting and receiving digital information. The SMP-k/r allow users to select any of the various protocols for receiving digital data via Optical, AES-EBU, and SPDIF formats (digital inputs). The Sampling Option also allows you to transmit digital data out of the K2000/K2000R to other digital equipment (DAT, other samplers) via AES-EBU and SPDIF formats. Digital ins and outs are often referred to as “digital I/o’s”.

What the Sampling Option offers
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Sampling is digital recording;

SMP-k (for the K2000) and SMP-r (for the K2000R) are Sampling Options which make sampling available to the end user. SMP-k/r should be installed by a licensed service center;

SMP-k/r allow the user to record from analog and digital sources. These recordings may be in stereo or mono, via Analog, AES-EBU, SPDIF, or Optical input formats;

SMP-k/r allow the user to send samples (digitally recorded materials) out to other equipment via digital outputs (AES-EBU, S/PDIF) or via analog audio outputs (MIX or A/B outputs).

Sampling Concepts
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The term sample has several meanings we must understand:

The most common use of the term “sampling” refers to digital recording of a sound. (i.e. I just sampled a great horn hit off of Tower of Power’s album, or I just sampled Harry James’ trumpet from my mother’s old scratched up album).

The other use of the term “sampling” refers to the smallest increment of digital encoding of an analog signal; a single increment is referred to as a ‘sample’. The K2000 has 4 user-definable, analog sampling rates, which are 48K (48,000 samples per second), 44.1K (44,100 samples per second), 32K (32,000 samples per second), and 29.4K (29,400 samples per second). All digital rates are supported (most commonly 48K and 44.1K).

Sampling is a three way process consisting of:

* Setting a sampling rate;
* Converting an analog signal to a digital number;
* Reconverting the digital numbers back to an analog signal, which is what we hear coming out the MIX and A/B outputs.

A Closer Look
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Sampling rate refers to the number of samples being taken every second: 48K, 44.1K, 32K, 29.4K. The higher the sampling rate, the better the audio frequency response (bandwidth). At a high sampling rate, cymbals sound really crisp and instrument attacks are sharply pronounced. While the higher sampling rates offer better bandwidth, they also offer less recording time. Lower sampling rates offer poorer bandwidth but more recording time. (See chart on Sampling Literature). The end user must decide whether they need more time or better fidelity.

Digital signals are created when the K2000/K2000R converts incoming analog signals into 16 bit words, using a 16 bit A to D (Analog to Digital) converter. A bit is the smallest possible digital representation of information. All digitally stored information is made of bits which are grouped in sets of 8; these groups are called bytes. A single byte can use 8 bits in any combination to represent some given information. Obviously, eight bits will give a clearer representation of the incoming analog signal than would a single bit.

A Byte can have 256 (2E8) values. A byte may look like 00000001, which equals a value of 1, while the next byte may look like 00000010, which equals 2, then 00000011, which would equal 3, and so on. We convert analog signals to 16 bit words which offer 65,536 (2^16 power) possible numeric output representations. If we record a dog’s bark which lasts 1 second at 44.1K (CD quality), we will have taken 44,100 samples which the A to D is converting and storing as 16 bit words. This will use up 173K of RAM memory.

Conversion of the digital 16 bit words back to analog signals is the final stage. The K2000/K2000R uses 18 DAC’s (Digital Analog Converters) for this task. The higher the DAC resolution (number), the better the reconstruction of the digital data as an analog waveform. Many of our competitors use 16 bit DAC’s and are losing important data in the reconversion process. No 16 bit DAC can effectively put out 16 bits of continuously perfect data. By using 18 bit DAC’s, we get true 16 bit reconstruction. Imagine the DAC plotting points on a graph based on numeric values taken from the digitally converted data. The DAC emulates the original wave form by charting its ‘important characteristics’. The higher the DAC, the more points are plotted, and the more points plotted, the closer to the original. The DAC reproduces a signal which is not identical to the original, but is close enough to ‘fool’ the human ear.

Practical Usage and Hands-On Training
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Entering The Sampler – Two Different Ways
There are two different methods of entering the Sampling page. Which method you choose depends on the type of sampling you are doing – how many samples you are making and if you need custom keymaps. The difference between the two methods primarily concerns the ease of accessing the keymap editor. Once you have made your samples, you will need to have them assigned to a keymap and have that keymap assigned to a layer in a program. Refer to the section entitled “Building a Keymap” on page 15-41, for a step by step explanation of how to create keymaps.

From Program, Setup, or Quick Access Mode
The simplest way to enter the Sampling page is from Program, Setup, or Quick Access Mode. (Note: the Sample soft button is also on the Master page.) Press the soft button labeled Sample on one of these pages. This is a good method to use if you are making only a couple of samples, or if you want to assign each sample to its own keymap and program. Once you have created and saved your sample, you can press the Preview soft button. This button will allow you to quickly create a program and keymap, with that sample assigned across the entire range of the keyboard. The program is a one layer program which uses the settings from the Default program 199.

From the Keymap Editor
This is a better method to use if you are going to be doing lots of multisampling, or if you need to create custom keymaps in which you have your new samples assigned across the keyboard in one keymap. Call up program 199, Default Program. Press Edit, then Keymap. Select Keymap 168, Silence, then press Edit again. This brings you to the Keymap editor. (In fact you can choose any program and keymap you want to start with, but by choosing these, you are starting with a “blank slate”.) Now from the Keymap editor, press the MIDI Mode button. This will jump you to the Sampling page. Once you have created and saved your samples, press Exit. You will now return to the Keymap Editor page, where you can immediately assign those samples across the keyboard. Once you have created and saved your keymap, you can either exit the Keymap editor and create a program which uses your new keymap, or you can return to the Sampling page for another round of sampling

Congratulations! You are now in the sampler.

Hands-On Practice
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We will always use the above procedure to enter the sampler. Enter the sampler on your own until you have the procedure memorized.

Digital and Analog Inputs
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You can select the type of sample input: Analog or Digital.

Analog input allows you to set:

* GAIN of the incoming signal to 4 preset levels: 0 dB, +7 dB, +14 DB, and +21 DB.
* RATE (sampling rate) can be set to 48K, 44.1K, 32K, and 29.1K.
* MODE can be selected from Stereo, Mono L, and Mono R.
* THRESHOLD can be selected from 15 preset levels (all 6 dB apart) from -90 dB to 0 DB and Off.
* TIME can be set from 1 second to the maximum time available (depending on sampling rate, amount of SIMM’s memory, and whether mono or stereo mode has been selected).
* MONITOR allows you to monitor the analog input through the K2000/K2000R’s internal audio system using the master volume fader to control the audio output of the sample input. You cannot monitor digital input signals.
* SOURCE allows you to choose whether you are sampling from an External Source or Internal (resampling the Kurzweil’s own output). (For the K2000 keyboard models, this parameter does not exist. Instead, it is set to Internal until you plug a cable into the sampling input, at which point it switches to External.)

Digital input allows you to set:

* CABLE TYPE: Coaxial (XLR) for AES-EBU, or SPDIF, or Optical.
* FORMAT: (digital format) either AES-EBU, or SPDIF.
* MODE can be selected from Stereo, Mono L, and Mono R.
* THRESHOLD can be selected from 15 preset levels (all 6 dB apart) from -90 dB to 0 DB and Off.
* TIME can be set from 1 second to the maximum time available (depending on sampling rate, amount of SIMM’s memory, and whether mono or stereo mode has been selected).

Recording A Sample
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At the bottom of the display is a series of soft buttons (software controlled) including Record, Auto, Timer, and Preview.

To record a sample:

1. Press RECORD to begin sampling (recording).
2. STRIKE ROOT KEY appears in the display when recording time has elapsed.
3. Press the note on the keyboard which you want to play back the sample.
4. SAVE THIS SAMPLE? appears on the display.
5. You may now audition the sample and decide whether or not to keep it.

* a. Select YES. The instrument automatically shows you the next available sample ID#. You may rename your sample at this time.
* b. Select NO. The sample is not retained in the instrument’s memory.

To record a sample using AUTO:

Auto performs the same function as record but skips all the prompts. Only STRIKE KEY, SAVE and ID# are prompted.

Other soft buttons:

TIMER sets a 10 second countdown before recording begins (handy for that cymbal you have to run across the room to hit).

PREVIEW allows you to set the bank where the newly created samples will reside. Once a sample has been recorded, it can be edited. To begin editing:

Use the cursor to highlight the sample shown at the top of the page and press EDIT.

you are now in the heart of the sample editor.

The Sample Editing Menu
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You will see a variety of menu choices along the bottom of the display including: MISC., TRIM, LOOP, and DSP. Scroll through the remaining menu choices by pressing MORE]. ( [MORE and MORE] allow you to scroll through the soft button menu choices). Your menu choices will be:

* Zoom-
* Zoom+
* Gain-
* Gain+

Press MORE]. Further menu choices appear:

* Abort
* Split
* Units
* Link

Press MORE] again. The remaining menu choices appear:

* Name
* Save
* Delete
* Dump

Edit Menu in Detail
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MISC. allows you to see the original sample root key and adjust a sample’s pitch, volume, decay and release. You may select to loop or not loop, select the type of loop, position the Alt. Sample Play Pointer before or after the loop, decide whether or not the sample should ignore release, and designate the sample rate and length.

TRIM adjusts the sample start and end points.

LOOP gives a split display, with the sample shown on the left half and the loop start/end points on the right. You can search for zero crossings by simultaneously pressing the – and + buttons (under the Alpha wheel). You can search for zeros in either direction (i.e. scrolling towards the beginning or the end of the sample and pressing the – and + buttons will search for the next zero).

DSP, short for digital signal processes, provides access to the myriad of functions for editing samples. (See DSP Functions below.)

ZOOM-, ZOOM+ displays either an entire waveform or “zooms” in on a fraction of a sampled wave, as small as a single sample.

GAIN-, GAIN+ amplifies a wave in order to see what, if any, nuances exist-as far down as -72 DB. (This is helpful to see the actual noise floor).

ABORT allows you to cancel a sample dump that is in progress.

SPLIT allows you to split a stereo sample into two separate mono samples.

UNITS changes the information shown at the top of the sample editor pages from seconds to samples. This is great for people who work in the time domain vs. the sample domain (i.e. Akaia users).

LINK allows you to lock together different fields in the sample editor so that adjusting one will adjust all parameters that have been linked by the same amount. This is great for moving simultaneously the start and end points of a loop, or adjusting the sample start and Alt. start pointers by equal increments.

NAME, SAVE and DELETE all are self explanatory.

DUMP allows you to send a sample dump over MIDI via SDS.

List of DSP Functions for Samples
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* NORMALIZING GAIN (boosting the sample gain to just before clipping)
* TRUNCATION (auto dB search command not to be confused with TRIM)
* VOLUME ADJUSTING
* CLEARING SAMPLES (leaving a space, not rejoining the materials on either side of the cleared space)
* DELETING SAMPLES (and rejoining the data)
* REVERSING SAMPLES
* INVERTING THE PHASE OF A SAMPLE (useful when separating a stereo sample and inverting the left side out of phase with the right side)
* INSERTING ZEROS (silence)
* MIXING SAMPLES
* INSERTING SAMPLES INTO OTHER SAMPLES
* CREATING VOLUME RAMPS (fade in/out)
* CREATING CRESCENDOS (similar to volume ramps)
* RESAMPLING (from higher sample rates to lower sample rates, or vice versa)
* TIME WARPING SAMPLES (compression/expansion-where the time changes but not the pitch)
* PITCH SHIFTING SAMPLES (changing pitch but not time)
* MIXING SAMPLES ON A BEATS/MINUTE TIME LINE (MixBeat – where samples may overlap)
* REPLICATE (similar to MixBeat but samples may not overlap, and will replace any samples which overlap as opposed to mixing them as in MixBeat)
* CREATING DIGITAL ECHOES (sample copies-MixEcho)
* BEAT VOLUME ADJUSTMENT (adjusting a particular beat’s or sample’s volume in a MixBeat or Replicate sample stream)
* CROSS FADE LOOPING.

Most DSP functions have user-selectable curves for cross fading and user- definable cross fade amounts, plus they allow the user to define the start and end points of the particular segment to be operated on.

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